A Singaporean friend of mine who had just been on a month-long holiday to his home country, chatted with me a few days ago about what he perceives to be a high level of corruption in Singapore whereby the ruling party in that country silences opposition parties by passing through legislation that punishes those who publish opposing views. This came as a surprise to me because the highly regarded corruption perceptions index (CPI) by Transparency International declares Singapore to the least corrupt country in the world.
According to Transparency International, Singapore is not a corrupt country, but according to many Singaporeans I actually talk to, Singapore is a highly corrupt country.
From what I hear, the corruption perceptions index merely gives surveys out to people and asks them about their perceptions on how corrupt a country is. This is hardly a rigourous measure of corruption. Some have suggested that a measure of the amount of bribes you need to pay is a better measure, but the problem with this is that I don't think corruption can be measured by bribe payments alone. We first have to look at the definition of corruption. Most academics define it as follows: "The use of government power for private gain."
It is my opinion that most of the time people's perceptions of corruption is itself corrupted by snobbery. That is, most people believe that rich countries are not corrupt while poor countries are corrupt because rich people have integrity and are honest whereas poor people are dishonest and have no integrity.
Based on this definition of corruption (corruption is "the use of government power for private gain."), let's face it, virtually all politicians and public servants are corrupt, even politicians and public servants in rich countries. Most politicians and bureaucrats use their position as a career, and large companies make non-transparent political donations to parties to effectively bribe them. Even in developed democracies politicians are driven by private gain, trying as hard as possible to stay in power, whether it is by accepting political donations from large interest groups and lobbies but also by pandering to voters' demands. A politician giving to voter demand is, by the definition of corruption we agreed to above, is corrupt.
It is clear that in all countries government responds to the demand of whoever is most powerful. The only difference between a democracy and a dictatorship is that power is not concentrated. In most healthy democracies, the country is still ruled by an elite but a little bit of power is given up to the people as a compromise.
My point is that perhaps we should not worry too much about corruption. There are numerous stories about corruption in China and India, yet these two countries are growing rapidly, more rapidly than the growth of Western economies when they were developing.
A particular public official in a developing country may not approve of some development unless he receives a bribe from a company. This public official may hold out for the highest bribe so he can make the most money possible. Companies offer him cash in briefcases under the table and the public official accept a particular company. This may occur in many developing countries, but it also occurs in developed countries. It is no different to the government allowing projects based on auctions.
If a dispute occurs in a developing country between two parties, the richer party will pay off the public official. This is no different to developed countries whereby disputes between two parties are settled in courts whereby the richer party hires better lawyers and drags the case on for long periods to bankrupt the other party.
Corruption in the form of bribes is merely the replacement of "might makes right" with "wealth makes right." It provides a non-violent means of conflict resolution.